[8] Theodore II died in that same year and was succeeded by his eight-year-old son John IV Laskaris. Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople in 1453. John III's son and successor, Theodore II Laskaris, recalled Michael in 1258 and after they had exchanged guarantees of safety and oaths of loyalty, Michael returned to service within the empire. [16], Through most of John VIII's reign, Constantine and Thomas ruled as Despots of the Morea, with Demetrios governing a stretch of land in Thrace. [56], The marriage of Zoe/Sophia (Thomas's second daughter) to Ivan III of Moscow served to strengthen Moscow's claim to be the "Third Rome", the ideological and spiritual successor to the Byzantine Empire. Through the preceding century or so of Palaiologan marriages to other imperial families, his ancestry could be traced back to the three most recent dynasties that had ruled the empire before the Fourth Crusade (Doukas, Komnenos and Angelos). [48] The Romanov dynasty, which succeeded Ivan the Terrible's Rurik dynasty and ruled Russia from 1613 to 1917, were not descended from Sophia, originating as in-laws, rather than descendants, of the Rurikids. Constantine XI Palaiologos Died this day, 1453 in defence of Christianity. [79][82], 'Palaiologos' as a last name continues to survive to this day in various variants. For the last Byzantine emperor, sometimes numbered this way, see Constantine XI Palaiologos. A little less than five years later in 1453 AD he was killed during the final assaults by the Turkish Sultan, Mehmed II on Constantinople. Dotted lines indicate illegitimate offsprings. [7] Though Michael continued to be mistrusted even after this, he married John III's grandniece Theodora Vatatzaina and was appointed as the megas konostaulos of the Latin mercenaries employed by the empire. Demetrios drew support for his opposition to the union between the Orthodox and Catholic churches. [21] The ill-advised threat gave Mehmed a casus belli and late in 1451, preparations were already underway for a new Ottoman siege of Constantinople. The role of the Palaiologoi as the final Christian dynasty to rule over Greek lands also accorded them a more positive remembrance among Greeks during the period of Ottoman rule. Allatius was the keeper of the Vatican Library and would have had access to its vast collection of books and records and might have deduced his findings from there. Nikephoros supported the revolt of Nikephoros III Botaneiates against Michael VII, but his son, George Palaiologos, married Anna Doukaina and thus supported the Doukas family and later Alexios I Komnenos, Anna's brother-in-law, against Botaneiates. Andronikos Palaiologos, father of the later emperor Michael VIII, was proclaimed megas domestikos (commander-in-chief), probably by Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes. John VIII had betrayed their faith and as such their entire imperial ideology and world view. [25] The brothers were divided in their policies. That a Byzantine prince, born in the purple, would be sent to live among, and rule over, Latin barbarians,[64] was bad enough but there were also fears that he and his descendants might become 'Latinized'[65] and that the Italians, as a result of the Montferrat inheritance, could launch an invasion in the future in hopes of placing a Catholic Palaiologos on the Byzantine throne. In his will from 1372, John II claimed that Andronikos II's deposition in 1328 by his grandson Andronikos III (John V's father) had been unlawful and thus disqualified Andronikos III and all his heirs from the legitimate line of succession to the throne of Byzantium. [23], In January 1459, rivalry between the brothers broke out into civil war as Thomas, with the aid of some of the Albanian lords in the Morea, seized a series of fortresses held by Demetrios. It is possible that a Constantine Palaiologos, employed in the Papal Guard and dead in 1508 was his son. [115] This family history derives mainly from oral tradition, with only a handful of documents possibly verifying parts of it as true. There, they faced a dilemma. During their rule as emperors, the Palaiologoi were not well-liked by their subjects, mostly on account of their religious policy. Their rule as Emperors and Autocrats of the Romans lasted almost two hundred years, from 1259 to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. In the years that followed it was said that he was not dead but sleeping - the 'immortal emperor' turned to marble, who would one day be … Their own medieval origin stories ascribed them an ancient and prestigious origin in ancient Roman Italy, descended from some of the Romans that had accompanied Constantine the Great to Constantinople upon its foundation in 330. [80] Numerous people with the last name Paleologus are recorded in Venice in the 15th and 16th centuries, many serving as stratioti (mercenary light-armed cavalrymen of Greek or Albanian origin). For 57 years, Constantinople had been under Catholic rule through the Latin Empire and now the easterners had once more asserted their right not only to the position of Roman emperor but also to a church independent of the one centered in Rome. According to the genealogies, Rogerio would have been born about 1430 and was supposedly sent to Alfonso the Magnanimous of Aragon and Naples as a hostage to guarantee some treaty with the Byzantines. [35] From the 1480s onwards, Andreas also claimed the title Imperator Constantinopolitanus ('Emperor of Constantinople'). Constantine was the son of Emperor Manuel II. Demetrios surrendered to the Ottomans without a fight and Thomas escaped into exile. Ελληνικά: Ο Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ’ ο Παλαιολόγος ή Κωνσταντίνος Δραγάσης (8 Φεβρουαρίου 1404 - … [114], Supposedly, Rogerio's descendants would then have remained in Casalsottano until 1571, when Giovanni Paleologo was given the fief of Perito and Ostigliano in Salerno. During Manuel II's reign, John VIII and the younger son Constantine appear to have got on well with each other, but the relations between Constantine and the younger brothers Demetrios and Thomas were not as friendly. Murad II's young son and successor, Mehmed II, who became sultan in 1451, was obsessed with the idea of conquering Constantinople. 1481–1512). Following this, Manuel II was firmly established as John V's successor, becoming senior emperor upon John's death in 1391. [18] After John VIII's death in June 1448, the candidates for the throne were brothers Constantine, Demetrios and Thomas. Supposedly, he is to have stayed in Casalsottano, a hamlet of the Italian comune San Mauro Cilento, in a 15th-century building commonly referred to as the Palazzo ("the palace"). [1] For instance, Michael VIII Palaiologos's full name was Michael Komnenos Doukas Angelos Palaiologos. It had long been under the Frankish principality of 'Achaia' Constantine was crowned Emperor January 6, 1449 AD succeeding his brother. One of the earliest references to Palaiologoi in Venice is a 1479 Senate decision concerning Theodore Palaiologos, who had recently proven himself in a campaign in Friuli. [13] Bayezid's siege lasted for more than a decade, with Western aid through the Crusade of Nicopolis (1396) failing to stop the sultan. [107], The Venetian Palaiologoi were not related to the imperial family, but they might have been distant cousins. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion He is not only remembered for being the last Byzantine Emperor who put up a brave last stand against the Ottomans, but also for his last speech to his officers and allies before the Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453 by Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II. Andreas Palaiologos died at a much younger age compared to his father, Constantine XI. Though Constantine XI died in communion with Rome (and thus as a "heretic"), his death in battle against the Ottomans, defending Constantinople, made the Greeks and the Orthodox church remember him as a hero, redeeming popular opinion of the dynasty as a whole. [91] As such, it is possible that Allatius had access to earlier documents, now lost, which would have proven the legitimacy of the Pesaro line. [125] Michael VIII was taunted with the words "you have become a Frank", which remains a term in Greek to taunt converts to Catholicism to this day. [69] John II even petitioned the Papacy to recognize his claims to Thessaloniki and to the empire, and to help him conquer them. Many of his subjects had chastized him as a traitor and heretic while he lived and he, like many of his predecessors before him, died in communion with the Church of Rome. [57], Thomas's older brother Theodore II, who preceded him (and co-ruled with him for a time) as Despot of the Morea, had a daughter, Helena, who married King John II of Cyprus. However, it soon became apparent Constantine's closest relatives, his brothers in the Morea, represented little more than a nuisance to Mehmed II and they were thus allowed to keep their titles and lands as Ottoman vassals. Constantine XI Dragasēs Palaiologos (February 8, 1404 – May 29, 1453) He was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor from 1449 to his death as member of the Palaiologos dynasty. [108] Theodore had a well-documented career as a stratiote. Even in this state, the empire, famous for its frequent civil wars, was unable to stay united. The origins of the Palaiologos family are unclear. For the next 192 years, Michael's descendants ruled the Byzantine Empire until the death of Constantine XI Palaiologos and the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks on May 29, 1453, becoming the longest-lived dynasty in Byzantine history. ISBN 9789607171917 (Worldcat, Greek National Bibliography 1999/2004, Biblionet), Emperor Constantine XI is the protagonist in. In the meantime, John VI Kantakouzenos attempted to consolidate his own dynasty on the imperial throne, marrying his daughter Helena to John V and proclaiming his son Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperor. [40] Andreas's brother Manuel died in Constantinople at some point during the reign of Mehmed II's son and successor Bayezid II (r. [111] The 1570 will of Demetri Paleologo, a son of Theodore, begins with "Io Demetri Palleollogo, da Constantinopoli ...". [53] The Tocco family went extinct in 1884, with the title of Prince of Achaea (among others) being inherited by Carlo Capece Galeota, their closest relative. Andronikos died in 1385 and his son, John VII Palaiologos briefly managed to usurp the throne in 1390. [78], Many Byzantine nobles found themselves in Constantinople in 1453, fighting against the Ottomans in their final attack. [52] The change in title might be attributable to the family being the senior heirs of Thomas Palaiologos, whose wife had been the heiress of the last Prince of Achaea. The situation was so dire that Manuel left Constantinople to travel around Western Europe asking for further aid against the Ottomans, visiting Italy, France and England. By the beginning of the 15th century, the emperors had lost any real power, with the empire effectively having become a client state to the new Ottoman Empire. Not only were the means the family had used to gain the throne grim,[11] but their religious policy alienated many within the empire. Despite the foreign and domestic difficulties during his reign, which culminated in the fall of Constantinople and of the Byzantine Empire, contemporary sources generally speak respectfully of the Emperor Constantine. There is a document from Casalsottano, dated 24 June 1441, which bears the signature of "Ruggerio Greco", "Greco" interpreted by proponents of the Mastrogiovanni descent as a nickname due to his Greek origin rather than a surname. [118] The "Rogerio Greco" mentioned as a judge in 1441 cannot be identified with the supposed progenitor of the Paleologo Mastrogiovanni line since it would have been impossible for him to have been a judge at only 11 years old. [117] The potential Palaiologan heir being kept as a hostage in Italy agrees poorly with contemporary Byzantine-Aragonese relations and importantly, no Byzantine historians mentions his existence. [129] As Ottoman rule continued, many Greeks dreamed of a day when a new emperor would once more rule a sizeable Greek domain. [78], It is possible that many of the modern people who bear the name are descended from wealthy Greeks in the Ottoman period, who commonly assumed Byzantine surnames and claimed descent from the famous noble houses of their Byzantine past. άς/The Marble-Petrified King (music/video) on, Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece (1204–1453), Eastern Orthodox Christians from the Byzantine Empire, Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014, Commons category without a link on Wikidata, WorldHeritage articles with VIAF identifiers, 21. [76][77][78], The probable extinction of the senior branch of the imperial Palaiologos family at some point in the 16th century did little to stop individuals in various parts of Europe from claiming descent from the old imperial dynasty. [35] Andreas and Manuel soon faced financial problems, with the pension once provided to their father having been split between the two of them and constantly cut back by the Papacy. In 1495, Theodore partook in a siege of Novara and also partook in later battles in Savona and Cephalonia. [8], After John III's death in 1254, Michael briefly took service with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, frequent enemies of the empire, and from 1256 to 1258 he was the commander of the Christian mercenaries fighting for the Seljuk Sultan Kaykaus II. The last certain members of the imperial line of the Palaiologoi died out in the 16th century, but female-line descendants survive to the present day. [89] With the sole exception of Thomas's purported son John, the existence of the rest of Theodore's immediate ancestors can be verified through records at Pesaro. Constantine Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Παλαιολόγος, romanized: Kōnstantinos Palaiologos; died 1508) was a 16th-century noble of Greek descent who served as a soldier in Italy. Constantine XI (1405-1453) was the last Byzantine emperor. [60], Michael VIII succeeded in achieving a union of the Catholic and Orthodox churches at the Second Council of Lyons in 1274, legitimizing him and his successors as rulers of Constantinople in the eyes of the West. Theodora Palaiologina Angelina Kantakouzene, Great Martyr, the Emperor Blessed Constantine XI Paleologos, Georgios Frantzes, Ioannes A. Melisseides, Rita Zavolea Melisseidou, " Ealo I Polis, To Chronico tes halose tes Konstantinoupoles " ( Constantinople has Fallen. Michael's successors ruled the Byzantine Empire at its weakest point in history, and much of the Palaiologan period was a time of political and economical decline, partly due to external enemies such as the Bulgarians, Serbs and Ottoman Turks, and partly due to frequent civil wars between members of the Palaiologos family. Constantine XI [1] Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 [2] [3] – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor, [4] [5] [6] reigning as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople. This group included names like "Palologoz of Kassandros" and "Manuel Palologoz". [41] Manuel had two sons; John Palaiologos, who died young, and Andreas,[42] probably named after Manuel's brother. Découvrez des commentaires utiles de client et des classements de commentaires pour [The Immortal Emperor: The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos, Last Emperor of the Romans] (By: Donald M. Nicol) [published: May, 2002] sur Amazon.fr. His only child, his daughter Helena, never married the sultan nor entered the sultan's harem, possibly because the sultan feared that she would poison him. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last Christian Emperor of Constantinople and Byzantium. [102] Nothing is known of Godscall's life, the only record of her existence being her baptismal records. [34] As the oldest son, Andreas was recognized by the Papacy as Thomas's heir and the rightful Despot of the Morea. [48] Jelena died childless, but Milica married Leonardo III Tocco, the ruler of the Despotate of Epirus. [102] Theodore left Barbados to work as a privateer, serving aboard a ship called Charles II, and died at A Coruña, Spain in 1693. Over the course of the 12th century, the Palaiologoi were mostly part of the military aristocracy, not recorded as occupying any administrative political offices, and they frequently intermarried with the then ruling Komnenos family, increasing their prestige. In 1320, Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos attempted to disinherit his grandson Andronikos III Palaiologos, despite the death of Andronikos II's son, heir and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos (Andronikos III's father). After his death in battle during the fall of Constantinople, he became a legendary figure in Greek folklore as the "Marble Emperor" who would awaken and recover the Empire and Constantinople from the Turks. To the Byzantine citizens themselves, the Union of the Churches, which to John VIII served as an assurance of a great western crusade against the Ottomans, was a death warrant for their empire. [47], Although the imperial dynasty went extinct in the male line, descendants of the Palaiologan emperors survived for centuries through the lineages of various daughters. [94], In 1578, the members of the family living in Pesaro were embroiled in a scandal as brothers Leonidas and Scipione Paleologus, and their nephew Theodore, were arrested for attempted murder. [28] Demetrios lived in the Ottoman Empire for the rest of his life, dying in 1470. Death. It is more likely that they originated significantly later in Anatolia since the earliest known member of the family, possibly its founder, Nikephoros Palaiologos, served as a commander there in the second half of the 11th century. [1], The Palaiologoi's many marriages with prominent Byzantine families was reflected in their choice of surnames, with earlier members of the imperial dynasty using the surnames of several of the previous ruling dynasties to reinforce their legitimacy. [38][39] According to Russian sources, he might also have had a daughter, Maria Palaiologina, who married a Russian prince. In 1259, Michael VIII Palaiologos became co-emperor to the young John IV Laskaris through a coup and in 1261, following the recapture of Constantinople from the Latin Empire, John IV was deposed and blinded. [11] Once news of the act, the blinding of not only the legitimate emperor, but an underage boy, got out, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Arsenios Autoreianos, excommunicated Michael. In 1382, the Kantakouzenoi were also driven out of the Morea (the modern-day Peloponnese) and John V's son Theodore was placed to govern it as the semi-independent Despot of the Morea, an important victory as the region was quickly becoming the most important Byzantine province. [5], Michael Palaiologos, born in 1223, was the son of Andronikos Palaiologos, megas domestikos in the Empire of Nicaea. John II also pointed out that since Andronikos II had disinherited Andronikos III, John II was thus the rightful emperor as the only true heir to Andronikos II. Clearly intending to usurp the throne, a new series of civil wars from 1352 to 1357 were eventually won by John V, deposing the Kantakouzenoi. [12] The blinding of John IV was a stain on the Palaiologan dynasty. The repeated attempts by the emperors to reunite the Greek Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church, and thus place the Byzantine church in submission under the Papacy, was viewed as heresy and treason. Constantine XI died fighting in its defense. [121], Numerous people with the last name Palaiologos, living on the island of Syros in Greece, have historically claimed descent from a supposed son of Andronikos Palaiologos, one of Emperor Manuel II's sons and Despot of Thessaloniki. [119] A 1489 census of San Mauro Cilento records no inhabitants with Byzantine surnames, though records a widow and daughter of "Quondam Princi de Rogerio Greco", someone subsequent censuses make clear left no further descendants. John IV, the last representative of the imperial Laskaris dynasty, was pushed aside in order to consolidate the Palaiologos family on the throne. She was the last recorded member of the family and, if their claim to descend from the imperial dynasty was true, the last true heir of the Palaiologan emperors. [1], In 1373, John V's son and heir Andronikos IV Palaiologos rebelled against his father in an attempt to seize the throne, instigating a fourth series of Palaiologan civil wars. Constantine I (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Αʹ, Konstantínos I; 2 August [ O.S. Lisez des commentaires honnêtes et non biaisés sur les produits de la part nos utilisateurs. [43] Manuel's son Andreas converted to Islam and might have served as an Ottoman court official. [109], Theodore had married Maria, a daughter of a man by the name Demetrios Kantakouzenos. This second origin story is similar to family traditions of other Byzantine noble families, such as the Doukas or Phokas clans, who also used stories of ancient Roman descent to bolster their prestige and somewhat legitimize their claims to the throne of the Byzantine Empire, the Roman Empire's medieval continuation. Some Byzantine refugees, such as historian George Sphrantzes, recognized Andreas as the rightful heir of the old emperors. Constantine XI Dragasēs Palaiologos, Despot of Morea, Byzantine Emperor, was born 8 February 1405 to Manuel II Palaiologos (1350-1425) and Jelena Dragaš (c1372-1450) and died 29 May 1453 of unspecified causes. Behold how our merciful and omniscient Lord has managed to preserve the integrity of our holy Orthodox faith and to save (us) all; he brought forth out of nothing the powerful Empire of the Ottomans, which he set up in the place of our Empire of the Romaioi, which had begun in some ways to deviate from the path of the Orthodox faith; and he raised this Empire of the Ottomans above every other in order to prove beyond doubt that it came into being by the will of God .... For there is no authority except that deriving from God. Death 1453-05-29. [4] The earliest known member of the family, possibly its founder, was Nikephoros Palaiologos, commander (possibly doux) of the Theme of Mesopotamia in the second half of the 11th century, in the reign of Emperor Michael VII Doukas. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last Christian Emperor of Constantinople and the Byzantine empire. [46] Thus, the male line of the imperial branch of the House of Palaiologos probably went extinct at some point in the early 16th century. [87] Because people with the name live throughout the world and might not even be related in the first place, creating an all-encompassing modern Palaiologos genealogy is next to impossible.

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